Creating an Invnicible Military In the United States

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Dr. Kenneth Walton

Research Relevant to use of the Transcendental Meditation Program in the Military

Over 600 studies in the last 35 years have explored effects of the Transcendental Meditation program of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in multiple areas of life. Hundreds of scientific studies have illustrated the ability of this program to reduce and counter the deleterious effects of stress in peoples’ lives (see, for example, the review by Walton et al., 2002). Because psychosocial stress plays a major role in cardiovascular disease and stroke, which are the main causes of death in advantaged countries like the U.S., doctors now prescribe Transcendental Meditation for prevention and treatment of these and other chronic diseases. Statistical meta-analyses of dozens of independent studies show that this program is 2-3 times more effective at reducing anxiety and promoting psychological health than other techniques of meditation and relaxation (for a review of these meta-analyses, see Orme-Johnson and Walton, 1998).

The Transcendental Meditation program has been found to reduce physiological indicators of stress such as the hormone cortisol and to increase indicators of well-being such as the neurotransmitter serotonin. These effects have been observed not only in those who practice this program themselves, but also in people who do not practice but who happen to live near a site where the more advanced Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi program is practiced in a group. The ability of such a group to influence the surroundings is dependent on the number of individuals in the group (Walton et al., 2005). Actually, these effects have been found to increase as the square of the number in the group. To illustrate this in another way, the threshold number of individuals participating in the group has been identified as the square root of 1% of the population under observation. When this number is reached, societal changes are clearly measurable (see review by Orme-Johnson, 2003). The physiological effects of being near such a group may underlie some of the societal effects, such as reductions in crime (Orme-Johnson, 2003, Walton and Levitsky, 2003) and reductions in war deaths and terrorism (Orme-Johnson et al., 2003). The theory used to explain these effects is that practice of the Transcendental Meditation program promotes the experience of our most basic, most expanded, or most unbounded state of consciousness, referred to as “transcendental” or “pure” consciousness. This state in turn brings deep rest and rejuvenation to the body and mind of the practitioner, removing abnormalities and resetting the system on a healthier style of functioning. However, because this state of consciousness is not limited by our body, but connects and underlies everything in creation, when it is enlivened in awareness by an individual or group, it is simultaneously enlivened for others in the vicinity.

The group practice of the advanced TM-Sidhi program has a far more powerful enlivening effect than an individual practicing alone. Thus, even non-practitioners in the vicinity begin to have experiences similar to practitioners. Their cortisol and serotonin change in a manner quite similar to what happens in an individual who practices the program regularly. The indication is that the effects of stress are being removed in them in much the same way they are removed in a practitioner of Transcendental Meditation (Walton et al., 2005). One other component of this theory is important for understanding how this relates to function of the military. That component is the role of stress, especially stress on a social scale, in causing aggression and wars. The theory is that the stress of many individuals adds or multiplies to constitute stress in society and that this stress in society often finds (temporary) relief in wars, terrorist acts, or other violent expressions (see Orme-Johnson, 2003; Orme-Johnson et al., 2003; Walton and Levitsky, 2003). If accumulated effects of stress in many individuals produce societal stress which then expresses in violent acts, then removing these effects of stress by reducing the stress in individuals, whether by their individual practice of this meditation program or by their proximity to a large group practicing the advanced program together, will remove the cause of violence and the need for war. For simplicity, this synopsis of many years of research from many universities has referenced only a few articles. Each of these published papers describes or references many other relevant research studies. To understand more profoundly the depth and breadth of this research, reading the references cited here as well as some of those cited within each of these articles is recommended.

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Dr. Kenneth Walton's Publications on Invincible Defense Technology

Dr. David R. Leffler, Dr. Kenneth G. Walton, Dr. Kurt Kleinschnitz, Ensign Daniel K. Burke (U.S. Navy SEAL Reserves) & Dr. Susan Vegors (2001, November 7). Invincible Defense A New "Secret Weapon!". Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace, [Reprinted and edited version of "Mozambique's Secret Weapon!] (Available at: http://www.peace.ca/invincibledefense.htm )

Dr. David R. Leffler, Dr. Kenneth G. Walton & Wing Commander Ravi Badhwar (Indian Air Force, Retired) (2001, June 23). Comments regarding the IDC analysis of Maharishi's Supreme Military Science--A Revolutionary Change in the Character of Military Intervention. India Defence Consultants, (Available at: http://www.indiadefence.com/maharishi1.htm )

Dr. David R. Leffler, Dr. Kenneth G. Walton & Wing Commander Ravi Badhwar (Indian Air Force, Retired) (2001, June 13). Maharishi's Supreme Military Science--A revolutionary change in the character of military intervention. India Defence Consultants, (Available at: http://www.indiadefence.com/SupremeMilitaryi.htm )

Dr. David R. Leffler, Dr. Kurt Kleinschnitz, & Dr. Kenneth G. Walton (1999, May 1). An alternative to military violence and fear-based deterrence: Twenty years of research on the Maharishi Effect. Security And Political Risk Analysis (SAPRA), (Available at: http://www.davidleffler.com/sapraalternative.html )

Dr. Kenneth Walton's Publications on other Topics

Walton KG. Reducing CVD with the Transcendental Meditation technique: Evidence and theory. In: Psychological Factors and Cardiovascular Disorders: The Role of Stress and Psychosocial Influences. Leo Sher, ed., Nova Biomedical Books, New York, 2008.

Schneider, R.H., Walton, K.G., Salerno, J.W., and Nidich, S.I. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity & Disease 16(3 Suppl 4): S4-15-26, 2006.

Walton KG, Randall OS, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Harris CL, Strayhorn G, Rainforth M, Cavanaugh K, Salerno J, Xu S, Schneider RH. Behavioral Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Older African American Women Part 1: Baseline Comparisons and a Composite Syndrome Index. (Abstract # 33). Paper presented at ISHIB2006: 21 Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference on Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Ethnic Populations, 2006; Atlanta, GA. http://www.ishib.org/HI_forpro.asp

Walton KG, Randall O, Gaylord-King C, Behavioral treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Older African American Women Part 2: A Randomized Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education. (Abstract # 34). Paper presented at ISHIB2006: 21 Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference on Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Ethnic Populations, 2006; Atlanta, GA. http://www.ishib.org/HI_forpro.asp

Walton, K.G., Cavanaugh, K.L., Pugh, N.D.: Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: A prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17:339-373, 2005.

 

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H., and Salerno, J.W., and Nidich, S.I. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease 3: Clinical and Policy Implications of Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program. Behavioral Medicine 30: 173-183, 2005.

 

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H. and Nidich, S. Review of controlled clinical research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease: Risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiology in Review 12: 262-266, 2004.

 

Walton, K.G., Fields, J.Z., Levitsky, D.K., Harris, D.A., Pugh, N.D., and Schneider, R.H. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: A pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1032: 211-215, 2004). (Presented at the 34th Annual ISPNE Conference, September 7-9, 2003. Rockefeller University, New York, NY.)

 

Hawkins, M.A., Alexander, C.N., Travis, F.T., Camelia, C.R.T., Walton, K.G., Durchholz, C.F. and Rainforth, M.V. Consciousness-Based rehabilitation of inmates in the Netherlands Antilles: Psychosocial and cognitive changes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:205-228, 2003.

 

Alexander, C.N., Rainforth, M.V., Frank, P.R., Grant, J.D., von Stade, C., Walton, K.G.: Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners: III. Reduced recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:161-180, 2003.

 

Alexander, C.N., Walton, K.G., Goodman, R.S.: Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners: I. Cross-sectional differences in development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:97-126, 2003.

 

Walton, K.G. Levitsky, D.K.: Stress-induced psychobiological and neuroendocrine abnormalities in aggression and crime—reversal by the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:67-88, 2003.

 

Goodman, R.S., Walton, K.G., Orme-Johnson, D.W., and Boyer, R. The Transcendental Meditation program: A Consciousness-Based developmental technology for rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:1-34, 2003.

 

Alexander, C.N., Walton, K.G., Goodman, R.S., Orme-Johnson, D.W. (Editors): Transcendental Meditation in Criminal Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention. The Haworth Press, Inc., New York, 2005. (Also published as a special quadruple issue of Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36:1-383, 2003).

 

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H., Nidich, S.I., Salerno, J.W., Nordstrom, C.K., and Bairey Merz, C.N. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28(3): 106-123, 2002.

 

Walton, K., Schneider, R., Streyhorn, G., Lollis, C., Randall, O, Xu, S., Kondwani, K., Oboho, K., Ofili, E., Nidich, S., King, C., Rainforth M. Effect of Maharishi Vedic Medicine on CVD and related stress factors in older African American women: Rationale and design of a clinical trial. Paper presented at the annual conference of The Institute for the Study of Hypertension In Blacks (ISHIB2002) in Miami, Florida, June 8-12, 2002.

 

Bairey Merz, C.N., Dwyer, J., Nordstrom, C.K., Walton, K.G., Salerno, J.W., Schneider, R.H. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease: Pathophysiological links. Behavioral Medicine 27(4): 141-147, 2002.

 

Fields, J.Z., Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H., Nidich, S., Pomerantz, R., Suchdev, P., Castillo-Richmond, A., Payne, K., Clark, E., Rainforth, M. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: A pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 89(8): 952-958, 2002.

 

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H. Prevention and treatment of CVD with Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Vedic Medicine—results of controlled clinical research. Presentation at the 7th Medical Research Conference of the Trinidad & Tobago Medical Association, Port of Spain, Trinidad, November 18, 2001.

 

Walton, K.G., Cavanaugh, K.L., Pugh, N.D.: Effect of the group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of societal stress: Causal analysis of time series data. Paper presented at Northwestern University’s Rice Foundation Symposium on Stress and Human Disease, Lake Bluff, Illinois, October 22-24, 1999.

 

Walton, K.G., Fields, J.Z., Harris, D.A., Pugh, N.D., Levitsky, D.K., and Schneider, R.: Maharishi Vedic Medicine and reduced stress-related disease: Do reductions in cortisol lower CVD in postmenopausal women? Paper presented at the Rice Foundation Symposium on Stress and Human Disease, Lake Bluff, Illinois, October 22-24, 1999.

 

Walton, K.G., Suchdev, P., Fields, J.Z., Payne, K., Clark, E., Pomerantz, R., Nidich, S., and Schneider, R.: A randomized controlled trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly. Paper presented at the Rice Foundation Symposium on Stress and Human Disease, Lake Bluff, Illinois, October 22-24, 1999.

 

Walton, K.G., Fields, J.Z., Harris, D.A., Pugh, N.D., Alexander, C.N. Waziri, R.: Stress and aging: Reduced cortisol response to glucose in postmenopausal women practicing the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Soc Neurosi Abstr 24:1764, 1998.

 

Cavanaugh, K.L., Pugh, N.D., Walton, K.G.: Effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on cortisol and other biochemical indicators of societal stress: A causal analysis. Soc Neurosi Abstr 24:1434, 1998.

 

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Walton, K.G.: All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American J Health Promotion, 12:297-299, 1998.

 

 Wenneberg, S.R., Schneider, R.H., Walton, K.G., MacLean, C.R., Levitsky, D.K., Mandarino, J.V., Waziri, R., Wallace, R.K.: Anger expression correlates with platelet aggregation. Behavioral Medicine, 22:174-177, 1997.

 

MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G. et al.: Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22:277-295, 1997.

 

Mason, L.I., Alexander, C.N., Travis, F.T., Marsh, G., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Gackenbach, J., Mason, D.C., Rainforth, M., Walton, K.G.: Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep, 20:102-110, 1997.

 

Wenneberg, S.R., Schneider, R.H., Walton, K.G. et al.: A controlled study of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. Internat J Neurosci 89, 15-28, 1997.

 

Alexander, C.N., Walton, K.G.: Preventing disasters and distress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Paper presented at the First International Congress of Civil Defence, Naples, Italy, October 11-13, 1996.

 

Herron, R.E., Schneider, R.H., Mandarino, J.V., Alexander, C.N. and Walton, K.G.: Cost-effective hypertension management: Comparison of drug therapies with an alternative program. American J Managed Care, 2:427-437, 1996.

 

Herron, R.E., Hillis, S.L., Mandarino, J.V., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Walton, K.G.: The impact of Transcendental Meditation on government payments to physicians in Quebec. Am J Health Promot 10(3):208-216, 1996.

 

Levitsky, D.K., Walton, K.G., MacLean, C.R.K., Pugh, N.D.C., Wenneberg, S.W., Schneider, R.H., Mandarino, J.V., Hillis, S., Waziri, R.: Reversal of neuroendocrine effects of chronic stress by the Transcendental Meditation technique. Soc Neurosci Abstr 21(2):1389, 1995.

 

Walton, K.G., Pugh, N.D.C., Gelderloos, P., Macrae, P.: Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: Preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. J Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1(3):263-283, 1995.

 

Walton, K.G. & Pugh, N.: Stress, steroids, and "Ojas": Neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention. Indian J Physiol & Pharmacol 39:3-36, 1995.

 

Wenneberg, S.R., Schneider, R.H., MacLean, C.R.K., Levitsky, D.K., Walton, K.G., Mandarino, J.P. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity. Psychosom Med 56:168, 1994.

 

MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D., Mandarino, J.V., Waziri, R. & Schneider, R.H.: Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months' practice of Transcendental Meditation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 746:381-384, 1994.

 

Staggers, F., Alexander, C.N. and Walton, K.G.: Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: The potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11:297-334, 1994.

 

Alexander, C.N., Robinson, P., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Schneider, R.H. and Walton, K.G.: The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation and meditation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 35:243-263, 1994.

 

Taub, E., Steiner, R.B., Weingarten, E., Alexander, C.N., and Walton, K.G.: Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: A long-term, randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation, EMG biofeedback and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11:187-220, 1994.

 

Walton, K.G. and Levitsky, D.: A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11:89- 118, 1994.

 

MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., & Schneider, R.H.: Apparent serum dehydroepiandrosterone response to acute laboratory stress. Soc Neurosci Abstr 19: 169, 1993.

 

Dangerfield, B.R., Walton, K.G.: Rhythmicity of serotonin uptake in platelet suspensions: Relevance to transmission at non-synaptic terminals? (Presented at the Second International Symposium on Serotonin, Houston, TX, September 15-18, 1992).

 

MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., Waziri, R., Schneider, R.J.: Alterations in plasma serotonin reactivity to laboratory stress after four months' practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. (Presented at the Second International Symposium on Serotonin, Houston, TX, September 15-18, 1992).

 

Walton, K.G., Pugh, N., Gelderloos, P., Macrae, P., MacLean, C.: Chronic stress, serotonin and suboptimal adaptive mechanisms in humans: Importance for health and disease. (Presented at the 23rd Congress of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology, Madison, WI, August 16-20, 1992).

 

Walton, K.G., Pugh, N., Gelderloos, P., Macrae, P., MacLean, C.: Is stress responsible for decreased serotonin metabolism in humans? (Presented at the Second International Symposium on Serotonin, Houston, TX, September 15-18, 1992).

 

MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., Mandarino, J.V., Waziri, R. and Schneider, R.H.: Altered cortisol response to stress after four months' practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Soc Neurosci Abstr 18:1541, 1992.

 

Pugh, N., Walton, K.G., Gelderloos, P., Goddard, P.H. and Gaudet, D.: Optimizing neuroendocrine function: Superiority in job performance and leadership ability are associated with increased serotonin metabolism. (Presentation at the 1992 Iowa Academy of Science annual meeting in Cedar Falls, April, 1992)

 

Walton, K.G., Pugh, N., Gelderloos, P., Macrae, P., MacLean, C. and Brown, G.M.: Chronic mild stress alters metabolism of serotonin and melatonin: Relation to adrenocortical function and health. (Presentation at the 1992 Iowa Academy of Science annual meeting in Cedar Falls, April, 1992)

 

Walton, K.G., Pugh, N., Gelderloos, P., Macrae, P. and MacLean, C.: Role of stress in health and aging: Chronic mild stress alters adrenocortical regulation in humans. (Presentation at the 1992 Iowa Academy of Science annual meeting in Cedar Falls, April, 1992)

 

MacLean, C., Schneider, R. Wenneberg, S., Levitsky, D. and Walton, K.: Reactivity of plasma serotonin to psychological stress. Trans Amer Soc Neurochem, 23:223, 1992)

 

Wenneberg, S.R., Schneider, R.H., MacLean, C.R.K., Levitsky, D.K., Walton, K.G., Mandarino, J.P., Wallace, R.K. and Waziri, R.: Anger/hostility correlates with platelet aggregation during mental stress. (Presentation at the 1992 American Psychosomatic Society annual meeting in New York, March, 1992)

 

MacLean, C., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., Mandarino, J.P., Waziri, R. and Schneider, R.H.: Reduced TSH reactivity during acute stress after four months' practice of Transcendental Meditation.(Presentation at the 1992 American Psychosomatic Society annual meeting in New York, March, 1992)

 

Gelderloos, P., Walton, K.G., Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Alexander, C.N.: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions, 26:293-325, 1991.

 

Walton, K.G., Brown, G.M., Pugh, N., MacLean, C. and Gelderloos, P.: Indole-mediated adaptation: Does melatonin mediate resistance to stress in humans? Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 16:273, 1990.

 

Mills, P.J., Schneider, R.H., Hill, D., Walton, K.G. and Wallace, R.K.: Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. J. Psychosomatic Research, 34:29-33, 1990.

 

Walton, K.G., Gelderloos, P., Pugh, N.D.C., Macrae, P., Goddard, P., MacLean, C., and Levitsky, D.: Stress as the cause of serotonergic dysfunction in mental disorders: support from correlates of serotonin turnover in normal subjects. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 15:1282, 1989.

 

Hill, D.A., Wallace, R.D., Walton, K.G. and Meyerson, L.R.: Acute decreased platelet serotonin and attenuation of autonomic activity in the Transcendental Meditation program (TM). Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 15:1281, 1989.

 

Schneider, R.H., Mills, P.J., Schramm, W., Walton, K.G., M.C. Dillbeck and Wallace, R.K.: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Type A behavior and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51:256, 1989.

 

Hauser, T., Walton, K.G., Glaser, J. and Wallace, R.K.: Naturally occurring ligand inhibits binding of [3H]-imipramine to high affinity receptors. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 14:244, 1988.

 

Walton, K.G., Hauser, T., McCorkle, T., MacLean, C., Fleshman, D. and Wallace, R.K.: "Substance M," an imipramine binding site ligand from human urine. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 14:1192, 1988.

 

Pugh, N., Walton, K.G. and Cavanaugh, K.L.: Can time series analysis of serotonin turnover test the theory that consciousness is a field? Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 14:372, 1988.

 

Pragnell, M., Walton, K.G. and Siu, C.-S.: Detection of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in human urine. J. Iowa Acad. Sci., 95:A53, 1988.

 

Walton, K.G., Gelderloos, P., MacRae, Goddard, P., Pugh, N.D.C., MacLean, C. and Alexander, C.N.: Urinary excretion of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) correlates positively with alertness and health. J. Iowa Acad. Sci., 95:A53, 1988.

 

Gelderloos, P, Walton, K.G., Goddard, P.H., Gaudet, D. and Pugh, N.D.C.: Whole blood serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid: Biochemical markers of leadership ability? J. Iowa Acad. Sci., 95:A57, 1988.

 

Walton, K.G.: Are there neurochemical tests of consciousness-as-a-field? Report on a neurochemistry conference at MIU. Modern Science and Vedic Science, 1:488-498, 1987.

 

Mills, P.J., Schneider, R., Hill, D., Walton, K.G. and Wallace, R.K.: Lymphocyte beta- adrenergic receptors and cardiovascular responsivity in TM participants and Type A behavior. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49:211, 1987.

 

Schneider, R.H., Mills, P.J., Schramm, W., Wallace, R.K. and Walton, K.G.: Differential endocrine responses to stress in meditating and non-meditating Type A subjects: A reflection of differences in central serotonergic tone? Neuroendocrinology Letters, 9:181, 1987.

 

Walton, K.G., McCorkle, T., Hauser, T., MacLean, C., R.K. Wallace, Ieni, J. and Meyerson, L.R.: "Substance M, a serotonin modulator candidate from human urine?", in Y.H. Ehrlich, R.H. Lenox, E. Kornecki and W.O. Berry, eds., Molecular Mechanisms of Neuronal Responsiveness, volume 221 of Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, pp. 503-514, Plenum Press, New York, 1987.

 

Walton, K.G., Francis, D., Lerom, M. and Tourenne, C.: Behaviorally-induced alterations in urinary 5-hydroxyindoles. Trans. of the Amer. Soc. Neurochem. 14:199, 1983.

 

Walton, K.G., Lerom, M., Salerno, J. and Wallace, R.K.: Practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi program may affect the circadian rhythm of urinary 5- hydroxyindole excretion. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 7: 48, 1981.

 

Majocha, R.E., Pearse, R.N., Baldessarini, R.J., DeLong, G.R. and Walton, K.G.: The noradrenergic system in cultured aggregates of fetal rat brain cells: morphology of the aggregates and pharmacological indices of noradrenergic neurons. Brain Research 230:235-252, 1981.

 

Wolfe, B.B., Augustyn, D.H., Majocha, R.E., Dibner, M.D., Molinoff, P.B., Baldessarini, R.J. and Walton, K.G.: Effects of isoproterenol on the development of beta-adrenergic receptors in brain-cell aggregates. Brain Research 207:174-177, 1981.

 

Wallace, R.K., Simon, B., Guich, S., Tomlinson, P.F., Petrick, L., Beth, S. and Walton,K.G.: Rise in urinary 5-hydrosyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) associated with practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 6:725, 1980.

 

Baldessarini, R.J., Kula, N.S. and Walton, K.G.: Effects of alternative transmitter amines on cyclic AMP formation in rat brain tissue. European J. of Pharmacol.56:167-171, 1979.

 

Walton, K.G., Miller, E. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Prenatal and early postnatal beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase of cyclic AMP in slices of rat brain. Brain Research 177: 515-522, 1979.

 

Walton, K.G., Majocha, R.E., Pearse, R.N., Augustyn, D.H. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Use of brain-cell aggregates for in vitro studies of CNS development. Fourth International Catecholamine Symposium, September, 1978.

 

Walton, K.G.: Phosphorylation of membrane proteins in the mechanism of action of hormones and neurotransmitters. in Birnbaumer, L. and O'Malley, B.W. (Eds.) Receptors and Hormone Action, Vol. III, Academic Press, New York, pp. 579-614, 1978.

 

Walton, K.G., Liepmann, P. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Interaction between phenoxybenzamine and dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase from rat striatum. European J. of Pharmacol. 52:231-234, 1978.

 

Walton, K.G.: Postsynaptic events and neurotransmitter-sensitive nucleotide cyclases. in Youdim, M.B.H., Lovenberg, W., Sharman, D.F. and Lagnado, J.R. (Eds.) Essays in Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Vol. II, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 105-149, 1977.

 

Walton, K.G., Miller, E. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Beta-adrenergic receptor: presence in cortex and cerebellum of newborn rat. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 3:123, 1977.

 

Baldessarini, R.J., Kula, N.S., Walton, K.G. and Borgman, R.J.: Behavioral effects of apomorphine and diisobutyrylapomorphine in the mouse. Psychopharmacology 53:45-53, 1977.

 

Walton, K.G., Majocha, R., DeLong, G.R. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Differential development of beta-adrenergic and dopamine receptor-cyclase systems in cultured aggregates of brain cells from the prenatal rat. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 3:463, 1977.

 

Baldessarini, R.J., Kula, N.S., Walton, K.G. and Borgman, R.J.: Hydrolysis of diester prodrugs of apomorphine. Biochem. Pharmacol. 26:1749-1756, 1977.

 

Borgmann, R.J., Baldessarini, R.J. and Walton, K.G.: Diester derivatives as apomorphine prodrugs. J. Med. Chem. 19:717-719, 1976.

 

Walton, K.G. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Effects of Mn and other divalent cations on adenylate cyclase in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 27:557-564, 1976.

 

Baldessarini, R.J., Borgman, R.J. and Walton, K.G.: Prolonged apomorphine-like behavioral effects of apomorphine esters. Neuropharmacology 15: 471-478, 1976.

 

Walton, K.G., Vogt, M. and Baldessarini, R.J.: Studies on the mechanisms of regulation of adenyl cyclase activity in the striatal region of rat brain. Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research 3: 813, 1975.

 

Baldessarini, R.J., Borgman, R.J. and Walton, K.G.: Esters of apomorphine and N, N- dimethyldopamine as agonists of dopamine receptors in the rat brain in vivo. Neuropharmacology 14:725-731, 1975.

 

Walton, K.G., DeLorenzo, R.J., Curran, P.F. and Greengard, P.: Regulation of protein phosphorylation and sodium transport in toad bladder. J. Gen. Physiol. 65:153-177, 1975.

 

DeLorenzo, R.J., Walton, K.G., Curran, P.F. and Greengard, P.: Regulation of phosphorylation of a specific protein in toad-bladder membrane by antidiuretic hormone and cyclic AMP, and its possible relationship to membrane permeability changes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70:880-884, 1973.

 

Kuo, J.F., Lee, T.P., Reyes, P.L., Walton, K.G., Donnelly, T.E. and Greengard, P.: Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases X. An assay method for the measurement of guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate in various biological materials and a study of agents regulating its levels in heart and brain. J. Biol. Chem. 247:16-22, 1972.

 

Walton, K.G., Kervina, M., Dow, D.S. and Fleischer, S.: Prolonged storage of mitochondria by freezing: Retention of respiratory control and energized swelling. Bioenergetics 1:3-8, 1970.

 

Dow, D.S., Walton, K.G. and Fleischer, S.: Control of mitochondrial swelling by Mg2+: The relation of ion transport to structural changes. Bioenergetics 1: 247-271, 1970.

 

References Cited

 

Orme-Johnson, D.W.: Preventing crime through the Maharishi Effect. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36:257-281, 2003.

 

Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C., and Alexander, C.N.: Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36:283-302.

 

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Walton, K.G.: All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12:297-299, 1998.

 

Walton, K.G., Schneider, R.H., Nidich, S.I., Salerno, J.W., Nordstrom, C.K., and Bairey Merz, C.N.: Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine, 28:106-123, 2002.

 

Walton, K.G. & Levitsky, D.K.: Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with aggression and crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36:67-87, 2003.

 

Walton, K.G., Cavanaugh, K.L., Pugh, N.D.: Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: A prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:339-373, 2005.

 

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